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人氣363
我大賺 - 理財教育 | 2013-06-10 20:30:00

Smart智富月刊第141期 撰文者:王妍文

面對富裕環境與多元化的金錢誘惑,過去「儲蓄等於理財」的觀念早已不適用,大多數父母都贊成要提早落實小孩的理財教育,但是該多早開始?又該如何做呢?

發展心理學大師皮亞傑(Jean Piaget)將兒童認知能力發展分為:從出生到2歲的「感覺動作期」、2~7歲間屬「思想動作前期」、7~11歲則處於「具體思想運作期」、11~15 歲就進入「形式思想運作期」。

瑞士銀行前產品策略暨顧問服務處副總裁及著有《富總裁的投資私房學》等書的財經作家楊偉凱建議,「具體思想運作期」剛好從國小開始,兒童已逐漸掌握邏輯思考方法,例如事物的因果、歸類,加上此時也都具備基本的數學、買賣交易概念,正是切入學習理財的好時機。

《Smart 智富》月刊專訪長期關注兒童、青少年理財教育的郭迺鋒、陳琬惠與楊偉凱等3位專家,歸納其意見,彙整為4步驟,作為教導孩子學習金錢價值觀與金錢規畫的基礎:


 


步驟1》常在日常生活中討論

美國知名親子理財大師妮兒.葛德菲(Neale S. Godfrey)說過:「讓孩子從遊戲當中建立財富的觀念。」用意就是在輕鬆氣氛中,以愉悅心情、重複性地體驗正確的理財觀。

要讓小朋友分清楚「需要」與「想要」這個理財概念的第1步,最好的方式就是在生活情境中去討論。

◎方法:陳琬惠建議,像是看了一部影片,就能與小孩討論,影片中人購物的情況是被欲望驅使的「想要」,還是為了生活運轉的「需要」,等小孩有一定概念後,再帶入想給他零用錢這件事。

步驟2》訓練小孩記帳習慣

楊偉凱認為,有了記帳習慣後,不僅能了解錢從哪裡來,又花到哪裡去,還可以藉此學會當資源有限時,該如何分配、管理的能力。

陳琬惠指出,不一定需要要求小孩天天記帳,不過當剛開始給零用錢時、國小生進入高年級、或是剛上國中等重要階段,因為生活型態改變較大,至少要能記帳1個月以上,讓新生活的消費面貌進到小孩腦中,之後即使不記帳了,小孩也會有數字概念,同樣有記帳效果。

◎方法:開始給零用錢後,要求小孩將每一筆支出都要記下來,如果帳本數字和實際金額不符合,則以減少下一次零用錢金額,或是必須縮短玩遊戲的時間等作為警惕。

步驟3》一起檢視花費行為

孩子剛開始有零用錢時,會覺得自己變得「獨立」了,可能每樣東西都想要,郭迺鋒建議,記帳之後,還要定期與小朋友進行帳本討論,藉此更清楚小孩的理財性格、想法,進而找到循循善誘的機會。

陳琬惠提醒,在訓練的過程中,父母要有堅持的態度,千萬不要因為小孩提早花完零用錢就心軟而給錢,或答應額外支付買禮物的錢,應該讓小朋友了解,當財務透支時,就必須學會忍耐,而非伸手要錢。

根據臨場上的經驗,比較會花費的小孩,在經過幾次「透支」狀況後,通常就會學到控制預算的重要性。

◎方法:若小孩零用錢花費都在「需要」的領域時,可以問他「那你想買玩具的時候怎麼辦?」或是當小孩透支時,詢問「之前的花費有什麼是可以省下來的呢?」

步驟 4》學會設定目標

「不是把零用錢統統存下來,就是好的理財教育。」郭迺鋒說,人的一生中要不斷面臨金錢、選擇、規畫的問題,因此,協助小孩從小學會設定目標、了解延遲享受就能有計畫達成目標的能力將會受用無窮。

等到小孩有基礎的理財知識後,陳琬惠建議,平常就可以丟問題給小朋友,像是「下星期我們要去百貨公司,你想買什麼嗎?」、「等一下我們要去圖書館,但是只有200元的預算,你覺得應該怎麼安排?」、「下個月我們有家庭旅遊,該怎麼安排比較好?」

當小孩畫出夢想後,就能進一步誘導他們思考,如何在「總額框架」中,一步一步學會規畫,朝夢想前進。

◎方法:以出門到圖書館為例,你可以問小孩,要坐公車還是計程車去?如果選計程車,比較舒服又快速,但是這樣我們就沒辦法吃蛋糕、喝飲料喔!坐公車比較久,但是便宜,多餘的預算可以存起來!把每個選項的優缺點都並列出來,也不需急著給孩子答案,讓他們學習選擇、判斷。

延伸閱讀:換個鼓勵方式 集點卡很好用

「媽媽,我今天幫忙掃地有多少錢?」、「我考試100分就會給我100元嗎?」許多父母透過零用錢,當作小孩做家事或是學業有好成績時的鼓勵,專家們都建議,盡量避免讓事情以金錢量化,一不小心,小孩的金錢觀反而會混淆。

當小孩做了值得鼓舞的事時,陳琬惠建議,可以利用小孩喜歡收集點數的習慣,製作好寶寶卡、集點卡,並與小孩共同商量,學會或做到什麼事就能集點,等累積到一定點數後,可以換取一件他想要做的事情,例如看電視1小時、打電動遊戲半小時或是爸爸陪他出門運動等,以避免將任何事情都與金錢畫上等號。


理財練習本-讓孩子開始練習寫下自己的夢想計畫表,並協助指導完成。
人氣363
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